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Navigating Property Division in Texas Divorce

The division of property and divorce concept. Bag of money, house, people and the judge's hammer.

With the divorce rate in the United States consistently hovering around 40 to 50 percent, many individuals are finding themselves facing the complex, emotional task of dividing property after the dissolution of a marriage. At the Law Office of Maria Lowry, a Houston, Texas family law firm, we strive to provide skilled guidance and professional advice to help you navigate this process. Read on to learn more about navigating the property division in a Texas divorce, and contact our office for more information or help in your matter.

Texas Is a “Community Property” State

The State of Texas follows the “community property” system, which essentially holds that most property acquired during a marriage belongs to both spouses equally and should therefore be divided equally upon divorce. While this may seem straightforward, the process can actually be quite complex to determine which property is marital and therefore part of the community property as opposed to separate property, and what the value of each asset is. Additionally, judges in Texas divorce cases have the power to divide community property unequally when persuaded it would be “just and right” to do so.

Nature of Property

The first step in dividing property is categorizing it into two types – community property (owned jointly by both spouses) and separate property (owned by one spouse prior to the marriage or received as a gift or inheritance). The latter is usually not subject to division. Under the right circumstances, separate property can become community property, and vice versa, making even this initial step sometimes difficult to work through correctly.

Economic Circumstances

The economic situation of each spouse is a crucial consideration in property division. This includes each spouse’s earning potential, employability, and the need for future support. A spouse who has been out of the workforce to care for children may be entitled to a larger share to maintain their standard of living, for example.

Fault in the Marriage’s Breakdown

While Texas is indeed a “no-fault” divorce state—meaning a spouse can file for divorce without having to prove any fault or wrongdoing—Texas courts can, and do, consider “fault” when determining issues like property division and spousal maintenance.

This might seem contradictory at first glance, but it’s an important nuance. The option to file for divorce on no-fault grounds allows a spouse to end a marriage without getting into the often messy and difficult task of proving wrongdoing. This makes the divorce process more accessible and, in some cases, less contentious.

However, when it comes to issues like property division and spousal maintenance, it’s essential to take a broader view of the marriage, which can include considering the conduct of both parties. For instance, if one spouse’s behavior (such as adultery or abusive behavior) has significantly contributed to the breakdown of the marriage, the court may decide that it would be unfair to split the marital property equally. The spouse who is at fault may therefore end up receiving a smaller share of the marital assets.

In these situations, the goal is not to punish the at-fault spouse but to seek an equitable (fair, not necessarily equal) distribution of assets. It’s worth noting that proving fault can be a complex process that requires strong evidence, and the impact on the division of assets can vary greatly from case to case.

This is one of the reasons why it’s so important to have an experienced attorney to help navigate the intricacies of the divorce process, including the potential impact of marital misconduct on property division.

Health and Age of the Spouses

The health and age of each spouse are crucial considerations when Texas courts are deciding how to divide property in a divorce. The goal of property division is to arrive at an outcome that is just and right, or equitable, considering the circumstances of both parties.

Age can have a significant impact on each spouse’s earning potential and future financial security. For instance, if one spouse is close to retirement age and has fewer opportunities to generate income in the future, they may be awarded a larger portion of the marital property to ensure they can maintain a reasonable standard of living.

A spouse’s health status can greatly affect their ability to earn income and their future financial needs. If one spouse has a serious or chronic health condition that impacts their employability or incurs high medical costs, they may receive a larger share of the marital property. The intention is to ensure that they can meet their healthcare needs and maintain a reasonable quality of life after the divorce.

In some cases, both age and health could factor into the decision. For instance, if an older spouse has a significant health issue, this combination of factors could weigh heavily in favor of them receiving a larger portion of the property.

However, these are just factors that the court considers, and the exact impact will vary depending on the specifics of each case. The court will also consider other factors, such as the earning potential of each spouse, the size and nature of the marital property, the needs of any minor children, and more.

Tax Consequences

The court also weighs the tax consequences of different property division scenarios. Certain divisions can trigger significant tax liabilities, and it is essential to account for this when determining an equitable split.

Reimbursement Between Separate and Community Estates

After determining the character of property, it is necessary to determine whether any reimbursements are required between separate or community estates.  For example, when the community estate builds a house on separate property land, the house takes the character of the land, so the spouse whose separate property benefitted owes a reimbursement to the community when the marriage ends, whether through death or divorce. 

The 2023 Texas legislature just made important changes to the relevant Family Code provisions in this area; by consulting with a dedicated family law attorney on your case, you’ll be sure this critical issue is dealt with appropriately.

Contact The Law Offices of Maria Lowry for Help Navigating the Division of Community Property in Your Houston, Texas, Divorce

Navigating property division can be a taxing process, both emotionally and financially. Engaging an experienced attorney can make a world of difference in ensuring a fair outcome. The Law Office of Maria Lowry has extensive experience in Texas family law and is dedicated to protecting your rights and interests during a divorce.

We understand that every divorce is unique, and what may be equitable for one couple might not be for another. Our approach is to work closely with our clients to understand their situations and provide tailored advice to ensure the best possible results.

Divorce doesn’t have to result in financial hardship or an unfair property division. With a clear understanding of Texas law and the guidance of a skilled attorney, you can navigate this process with confidence and emerge in a position of financial security.

If you are facing a divorce and need help understanding property division under Texas law, don’t hesitate to contact the Law Office of Maria Lowry. We’re here to help during this challenging time.

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